Wire & Cable Technical Specifications
Q. How do I find out whether an ÖLFLEX® cable is free of silicone and paint-wetting impairment substances (PWIS)?
A: In most cases, customers simply ask whether our cables and wires are free of silicone. What is actually being queried is whether the cables are free of "PWIS" (paint-wetting impairment substances), as silicone is not the only substance that can impede paint-coating.
The main PWIS are silicones, paraffin, oils and greases. Cables and wires that contain such substances should not come into contact with any parts to be painted. The storage of such products in paint shops can also be problematic, even if there is no direct contact with unpainted work pieces; this is because substances like silicone in particular emit a lot of gas, which can settle on unpainted parts or even contaminate entire priming paint baths.
The undesired consequence is that the paint fails to bond with the PWIS-contaminated sections of the work piece, resulting in the dreaded circular "craters" or "pinpricks" on the painted surface. Therefore, products containing silicone are strictly prohibited in such applications.
In most cases, this restriction not only applies to cables and wires, but also to cable glands, connectors, protective conduits and other accessories. Lapp Kabel can confirm that especially the ÖLFLEX® and UNITRONIC® cables which were tested in our own laboratory are free of PWIS.
However, this confirmation only applies to the materials used during product manufacture. It does not cover the potential risk of subsequent contamination with paint-impeding substances when the products are handled during transport, storage and further processing. Additional information, a list of all PWIS-inspected Lapp cable products and a pre-defined confirmation letter can be found at the following link: LABS-PWIS
Q. Which Lapp cables are approved for use in hazardous or explosive environments?
A: In accordance with the revised standard VDE 0165, part 1, edition 05/2009 (EN 60079-14:2008) (the following pages ) describe the possible selection of cables for explosive atmospheres on the basis of examples of normative construction design as well as of Lapp work standard products for the various applications. This document merely represents Lapp's interpretation of the specifications contained in the German version of the standard.
However, in the absence of clear formulations and distinct terminology, this standard is both open to and in need of interpretation. As a result, this document in no way constitutes a legally binding interpretation. Ultimately, the selection of suitable cables for explosive atmospheres must always be made on the basis of specific local criteria regarding use and application. In cases of doubt, we recommend that the testing engineer/certifier responsible for the technical acceptance of the individual application be involved in the product selection process from an early stage.
Q. What are "intrinsically safe circuits"? What cables can be used in such circuits?
A: A number of ignition protection types exist to eliminate the dangers posed, for example, by ignitable sparks in explosive atmospheres. As well as for instance the use of pressure-resistant engine casings (ignition protection type d “drive enclosure”), this also includes amongst others intrinsic safety (ignition protection type i “intrinsic safety”). Intrinsic safety is a technical property, in which special construction principles are applied to prevent the occurrence of dangerous situations, even in the event of a fault.
Electrical or electronic devices with ignition protection type "i" are used especially in explosive atmospheres for measurement and control purposes. Power is supplied to electrical equipment via a safety barrier, which limits the voltage and current such that the minimum ignition energy and temperature of an explosive gas, dust or vapour mixture is never reached. Intrinsically safe circuits are therefore used in explosive environments in which no sparks or thermal effects must occur that may ignite an explosive atmosphere. The operating voltage and current must not generate sufficient energy to cause an explosion.
Q. A customer needs a cable to perform temperature measurements with a Pt100/Pt1000 temperature sensor. Could an extension or compensating cable be recommended in this case?
A: No, extension or compensating can´t be used in combination with a Pt 100/Pt 1000 temperature probe.
There are two very different ways of performing temperature measurements:
Temperature measurement with a "Pt100/Pt1000 temperature probe or resistance thermometer":
The measurement of temperatures using resistance thermometers is based on the fact that all conductors and semiconductors alter their electrical resistance in line with the current temperature. The Pt100 and Pt1000 sensors are widely used temperature probes that measure changes in resistance of a platinum element at different temperatures. Highly accurate measurements between -200 ℃ and +850°C are often based on the change in electrical resistance of a platinum wire or layer. Unlike with sheathed thermocouples, no so-called extension or compensating cables are used to connect resistance thermometers. Ordinary copper conductors are used instead.
Temperature measurement with a "thermocouple or sheathed thermocouple"
A thermocouple comprises two electrical conductors made of different metals, which are connected at one end (measuring point). The two open ends form the comparison point. In the case of sheathed thermocouples, the two conductors are enclosed in a protective tube, usually made of steel. Thermocouples can measure somewhat higher temperatures (> 1600°C) than resistance thermometers and offer faster response times. Extension and compensating cables are effectively used to extend the thermocouple. The cables are usually connected to a display device, e.g. a galvanometer or an electronic measuring instrument, via a temperature comparison point.
Q. What is the difference between so-called extension and compensating cables?
A: Extension and compensating cables are connected to thermocouples, which always contain two different metal wires that are insulated from one another. The greater the price or quality of the metal wires in the thermocouple, the more accurately higher temperatures can be measured. By welding the two wires together to form a measuring point, the prevailing temperature of a medium can be determined on the basis of the "Seebeck effect". If the temperature between the measuring point on the thermocouple and the comparison point (cold junction) varies while the applied temperature remains constant (e.g. 0°C), this represents a very low thermoelectric potential in the microvolt range; a specific temperature value can be assigned to this voltage, depending on its size.
The most common metal combinations used in thermocouples are Fe/CuNi (iron/cupro-nickel), NiCr/Ni (nichrome/nickel) and PtRh/Pt (platinum-rhodium/platinum).
Extension cables always include identical conductor alloys like the metal alloy wires used in the thermocouple.
Fe/CuNi (iron/cupro-nickel) is a typical example of a extension cable as the metals and alloys employed (also known as constantan) are widely available and relatively affordable.
The conductor materials of compensating cables are not identical to the metal wires in the thermocouple, but instead use completely different metal combinations.
PtRh/Pt is one typical combination used in compensating cables. Unlike with thermocouples, it is obviously not possible to use kilometres of real platinum and purest rhodium as a core conductor material. The resulting cable drum would probably cost several million Euro! For this reason, the industry employs compensating metals, which offer virtually the same thermoelectric properties as the original thermocouple material, but at a fraction of the cost. A compensating cable for a platinum-rhodium/platinum thermocouple actually contains copper/cupro-nickel conductor alloys. In the case of cables for NiCr/Ni thermocouples, the customer can choose between expensive extension cable versions or cheaper compensating cable versions, whereby the measuring tolerance and accuracy can vary accordingly.
The decision if a extension or compensating cable should be used must always be made by the customer on the basis of his intended application. As a cable manufacturer, we can only offer limited advice in this regard.
Q. How do I obtain the capacitance, inductance and impedance values of ÖLFLEX® cables?:
A: It is possible to measure the capacitance (C), inductance (L) and impedance (Z) on a cable drum or to calculate these values on the basis of specific key data. Calculations can be performed for virtually all ÖLFLEX® cables, but the values must be determined separately for each individual product article.
Calculations are only possible if the following data is known:
- Cable product and dimension
- Exact dielectric constant of core insulation material
- Diameter of copper conductor
- Wall thickness of core insulation
Accurate calculations are only possible if the relevant cable was produced in one of our own Lapp factories, meaning that all the above values are available.
The capacitance, inductance and impedance of many ÖLFLEX® products have already been established in the past and can be obtained on request from the PDC Technology department.
The electrical capacitance is measured in Farad (F).
The inductance is measured in Henry (H).
The impedance is measured in Ohm (Ω).
Q. Can a UNITRONIC® data cable with a peak operating voltage of 250 V be used to connect a device with a mains voltage of 230 V?
A: No! This could easily result in fires or lethal electric shocks! Data network cables and power cables are subject to completely different design and test standards. The main difference lies in the core insulation strength. UNITRONIC® data cables are typically used in data networks with a voltage range of 6 to 48 V. ÖLFLEX® connection and control cables, on the other hand, are predominantly used for devices with a 230 V mains voltage (e.g. drills, lawnmowers etc.) or for machines in power or three-phase networks, e.g. U0/U 300/500 V or 600/1000 V. Since the size of the voltage is directly connected to the strength of the core insulation, this represents the greatest difference between data and power cables. To be able to cope with voltage ranges of U0/U 300/500 V, the core insulation of an ÖLFLEX® CLASSIC 100 power cable, for example, is on average 50-70% thicker than that of a UNITRONIC® LiYY data cable. It is possible for voltage peaks of 250 V to occur in data networks.
However, under no circumstances must this voltage be equated with a stabilized alternating current of 230 V at 50 Hz supplied from a mains power socket! Using a data cable in this case would carry a very high risk of cable fires or electrocution resulting from the insufficient strength of the core insulation! The dielectric strength of data cables is generally only checked with 1200 to 1500 V for one minute periods. Connection and control cables, on the other hand, are tested with 4000 V for periods of 15 minutes. Indirect connection of data cables to the power network is only possible if a transformer is used to convert the mains voltage to the permissible low voltage of the operated device (e.g. a laptop or model railway). In this case, it must be ensured that an ÖLFLEX® cable with the appropriate voltage class (e.g. U0/U 300/500 V) is used to connect the transformer to the mains supply and that the UNITRONIC® data cable is only used to link the relevant device with the transformer. The electrical voltage is measured in Volt (V).
Q. what are benifits of Ethernet Fast connect cable Vs not fast connect cable?
A: A fast connect cable has an inner sheath.
The problem is, when you have to connect the cable with a connector, you have to strip the outer sheath in a special length, than you have to cut the copper braiding in a special length, so that it fits to the connect.
The fast connect is a standard. So it means, when you prepare the cable for connecting, the distance between cores and shielding and the distance between shielding and jacket is standardized.
If you use a Fast Connect cable, you can use the easy stripping tool where you have to knives in. And this stripping tool cuts the jacket and the copper braid shielding in the correct distance and you have only one step to prepare the cable for a FC connector.
The advantage is that on the one hand, you and our customers can save time for connecting the cable with the connector. But on the other hand you have to take care, that the connector is also a FC one.
But for FC connectors fast connect means also not to strip the insulation of the cores. The fast connect cable have a special insulation for connecting the cable with an IDC technique.
Q. What is the difference between Cat 6e and Cat 6A?
A: For Ethernet transmission, there are some standards like ISO11801 which defined the transmission categories like Cat.5, Cat.6 or Cat.7.
In former times there were no transmission categories for Cat.6 for higher frequency. Therefore some companies created the category of Cat.6e. But since 2002 there is a new category for 500 MHz transmission frequency and this is called Cat.6A. So the old Cat.6e is not relevant anymore or means that this was never a right transmission class standardised in a standard.
For Cat.6A: You have to care for the right writing. Because Cat.6A is a transmission category out of the North American Standard (EIA/TIA 568) and Cat.6A is out of the European and international standard ISO.
So our components (either cables or connectors) are suitable for the European standard Cat. 6A.
Q. What is the meaning of OM1, OM2, OM3 and OM4 in Glass optical Fibre? What is the application?
A: OM1 (62.5/125) Multi mode.
Below are FO 50 / 125 Multi mode
OM2 is 50mm first version
OM3 is 50mm Laser Optimized for higher bandwidth/transmission rates
OM4 is basically OM3 with longer distance capabilities
Note : OS2 is 9/125 single mode
OM1 (62.5/125) should be all but obsolete now save for legacy installations seeing as OM2 offers twice the bandwidth of OM1 and is at a better price-point. OM1's only boast of supporting 10Mb farther than OM2. However, nobody is pushing 10Mb in the backbone these days.
All of OM2, OM3, and OM4 will support 1Gb/s & 10Gb/s. The question you need to ask is how far you plan to run the said protocol. OM3 & OM4 have been optimized for VCSEL-based optical transmission. OM3 is characteristically guaranteed to support 10Gb/s to 300m and OM4 to a minimum of 550m with some mfgs boasting longer distances.
However, with 40G and 100G around the corner, Recommended OM3 at a minimum and OM4 can fit in budget. It could save an upgrade 5-10 years down the road.
OM3 and OM4 Fiber Optic Cable : With each passing year demand for higher data rates in data center environments grow. More and more sophisticated equipment is introduced into the marketplace and more users need access to data center services. Today, we are able to transmit data within the data center at 10 Gig / second using multimode fiber.
While this seems like an enormous transmission rate, user demand will catch up with it fairly quickly. Thankfully technologies are emerging that will allow transfer rates of up to 100 Gig / second in the data center. Also on the horizon are 10 Gig / second data rates to the desktop. As demand for service grows so must the transmission standard. These new increased data rates will require cleaner signals for transmission of laser pulses on multimode fiber.
Introduction of Laser Optimized Fiber
Standard, Non-Laser Optimized Multimode fiber, typically is manufactured with an optical defect in the centre of the core. While this defect is not detrimental to the transmission of light emitted by LED’s, coherent light emitted by lasers is greatly affected. In order to efficiently transmit laser light through multimode cable one must use a mode conditioning cable. These costly patch cables offset the launch of the laser to avoid the center defect. In the early 2000’s optical fiber manufactures began producing fiber without the center defect… Laser Optimized Multimode Fiber was born. OM3 was the first standard to emerge, codifying laser optimization of multimode fiber. This technology was the first to allow designs of laser transmission systems utilizing multimode optical fiber without the use of mode conditioning cables. This new fiber when paired with new low cost Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser technology allowed for 10 Gig transmission.
OM3 vs OM4
OM4 fiber has been on the market since 2005, sold as premium OM3 or OM3+ fiber. The OM4 designation standardizes the nomenclature across all manufacturers so that the customer has a clearer idea of the product that they are buying. OM4 is completely backwards compatible with OM3 fiber and shares the same distinctive aqua jacket. OM4 was developed specifically for VSCEL laser transmission and allows 10 Gig / second link distances of up to 550 Meters (compared to 300M with OM3).
The effective modal bandwidth for OM4 is more than double that of OM3 (4700 MHz.km for OM4 v/s 2000 MHz.km for OM3).
While OM3 fiber will still be future proof in most applications, allowing speeds of 10GB/s up to 100GB/s, OM4 fiber offers users longer length distances and more wiggle room in optical budgets
For more information on our FO cable pls use below link.